Comparison Vertebrate Physiology

Rolland Merch Meters. Arriza

Physiological features of LAMPREY, SHARK, SKATE, TUNA, EEL, SALAMANDER, FROG, TURTLE, SCREEN LIZARD, SWEET, BATS and HUMAN.

A. GROSS MORPHOLOGY

1 . SCHOOL AGNATHA

Lamprey

Lampreys invariably is an order of jawless fish, the adults of which will be characterized by a funnellike drawing mouth lined with whorls of above 100 of such teeth. They are really eel similar to shape, with 7 gill openings and an inconspicuous median fin. This median b becomes quite pronounced in the males because they ascend the river in breeding state. Though the lamprey's eyes are tiny they are undoubtedly functional. There exists a third, pineal, eye situated on top of the head which in turn functions to regulate circadian rhythms. The entire skeleton is made of cartilage. The spinal cord is supported by a notochord, rather than between a bony vertebral line. Sexually older adults typical 2 to 2 . 5 feet long. Lampreys absence bony teeth and jaws. Nevertheless it comes with an impressive common armament of conical teeth made of keratin, the same structural protein seen in human curly hair and nails. The lamprey even offers teeth about its tongue.

Lacking matched fins, adult lampreys possess large sight, one nostril on the top of the head, and several gill pores on each side of the mind. Dorsally, there is a transluce nt pineal spot and anteriorly to it, a median dorsal " nostril'' named the nasohypophysial opening because it is the opening of the olfactory body organ and a blind hypophysial tube such as pituitary glandular. The unpaired fins are definitely the dorsal and caudal fins, which are strengthened by several, thin cartilaginous radials connected with radial muscle tissues. The butt is somewhat hypocercal; that may be, the fleshy part that contains the notochord is downwardly bent. The sucker which in turn surrounds your mouth is heightened by a ring-shaped annular the fibrous connective tissue cartilage and bears numerous sexy denticles. Your mouth includes a complex " tonguelike” apparatus which in turn shows some resemblance to that of hagfishes as to their basic system. It holds a series of combed shaped horny " teeth” which can move on the idea of a retracting pison cartilage.

2 . CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES

Shark

Sharks certainly are a group of seafood characterized by a cartilaginous skeletal system, five to seven gill slits around the sides from the head, and pectoral bout that are not joined to the mind. Has a fusiform body shape, which means it is designed more or less such as a torpedo. Along the sides of the body is a light-colored horizontal stripe named the horizontal line. The line is made up of several tiny follicles that lead to pain that are sensitive to the physical movement of water and sudden changes of pressure. Most fishes are crangiform swimmers and therefore they maneuver quickly throughout the water. The fusiform physique of a shark is helpful because when going swimming, no eddies are created. You will find one or two bout present along the dorsal midline called the first and second hinten fin. These are anti-roll backing fins. Upper chest fins start behind the top and extend outwards. These fins are used for steering during swimming that help to provide

the shark with lift. Pelvic fins are found near the claoca and are also stabilizers. In men they have a extra function as they are modified into copulatory internal organs called claspers. Anal fins may be absent, but if present they are located betwee in the pelvic and caudal fins. The tail region itself includes the hacienda peduncle and the caudal very b. The capital peduncle may possibly have steps known as precaudal pits identified just prior to the caudal termin. The peduncle may also be horizontally flattened into lateral keels. The shark eye has a reflecting level called a tapetum lucidum located behind the retina. Fundamentally the structure consists of a layer of parallel, plate-like cells filled with silver guanine crystals. One more modification present in some fishes is the presence of a nictitating membrane. This kind of structure is actually a denticle protected membrane that protects the eye. It closes when the shark passes...

Recommendations: Budker, Paul (1971). Living of Fishes. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. SBN 297003070.

Campana, Steven (2003). " Shark Anatomy”. Canadian Shark Research Lab. Web. of sixteen July

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Cannatella, David. 2008. " Anura”. The Tree of Life Web Project. 11 January 08.

Conrad, Jack port L (2208)

Duellman, T. E. and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Elias, S. M., and G. K. Menon. 1991. Structural and biochemical correlates of the epidermal

permeability buffer

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2009). " Anguilliformes" in FishBase. January 2009 version.

Gardiner Ur (2003). Discovering Lamprey. A Field Key for Sea, Riv and Brook Lamprey.

Ghattas, Sawsan Meters. and Yanai, Tokuma. 2010. Light Microscopial Study on the Skin of European

Eel (Anguilla Anguilla)

J. Alan Holman. 2006. Fossil Salamanders of America. Indiana University or college Press. Page 10.

JГёrgensen, JГёrgen. 1998. The Biology of Hagfishes. Springer. Page 135-137.

Larson, Allan, David Wake, and Tom Devitt. 2006. Caudata. Salamanders. The Tree of Life Net

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